Predicting the General Physical Fitness Level of Blind and Visually-Impaired Malaysian Paralympics Athlete


Dr. Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin1

Nagoor Meera Abdullah2

Wahidah Tumijan2

Prof. Dr. Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee3


1School of Education and Social Development, University Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia

2Faculty of Sport Science and Recreation, University Technology Mara, Malaysia

3Centre of Educational Studies and Modern Languages, UUM College of Arts and Sciences, University Utara Malaysia, Malaysia



The purpose of the study is to verify and detect the level of physical fitness among the blind and the visually-impaired Malaysian Paralympics goalball players using a battery of field tests. Nine national goalball players with varying degrees of blindness were assessed for physical fitness. All participants were male. The participants were representing Malaysia for an international tournament this year. The participants underwent physical fitness (handgrip strength test, sit and reach, vertical jump test, push up test and Astrand-Rhyming test to test their submaximal aerobic capacity). The study revealed that the individual with visually impaired had an average physical fitness level based on their age which is the athlete’s age between 21 to 24 is much better than athlete’s age between 25 to 36 that used in this study, but there is no significant difference in terms of the disability groups. Goalball is designed specifically for the blind and the results of this study are strongly indicates of its tangible potential in enhancing a number of motor skills in this special need group.



Keywords: physical fitness; blind and visually-impaired; goalball players. 

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